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P. Caccamo

• 1961 - Headquarters Staff, Clerk (Clerk 1).

M. Cailloux

• graduate from Montreal Ecole Polytechnique
• 1912 - junior assistant, Lake Ontario survey
• 1912 - hydraulic survey, Detroit River.
• 1913 - Lake Ontario survey & water level studies, St. Lawrence River
• 1914-15 - water level studies, St. Lawrence River
• 1916 - Current surveys St. Lawrence River.
• early 1917 - granted leave to join the French Army in Europe.
• 1919 - returned from military service, assigned to Drafting Office.
• 1920-21 - Lower St. Lawrence survey.
• end of field season 1921 - assigned to Drafting Office.
• about 1924 - resigned.

A.E. CadAeaux

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tides and Water Level Section, Technician 2

Miss M. Caldwell

• 1947 - hired as Student Assistant in chart construction

T.M. Calderwood

• 1964 - ?Electronic Technician? (BIO) - CSS Kapuskasing - Chaleur Bay

E Cameron

• 1968 - Student Assistant - Ottawa River survey
1969 - Student Assistant - Ottawa River survey (   to 30 Aug)
1970 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods survey ( May 19)

John B. Cameron

• 1950 - Hydrographer, CGS KAPUSKASING, Labrador Coast
1953 - HIC, CHL BAYFIELD, Georgian Bay - Parry Sound, Owen Sound
1954 - HIC, CHL BAYFIELD, Approaches to Parry Sound
1955 - HIC, CHL BAYFIELD, Georgian Bay, Parry Sound area
• 1956 - Hydrographer in Charge, Shoreparty, Parry Sound, Georgian Bay
• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 5
• April 1963 - Nomenclature (Technical Officer 5)

R.M. (Ralph) Cameron

Ralph first peeked out behind a lump of coal in 1922 in Springhill, Nova Scotia. He served in the RCAF from 1941 to 1945. He followed this by three years at Mount Allison University. He then decided that the Canadian Hydrographic Service was preferable to the coal mines and joined as a field hydrographer in 1951.

At this time, the Hydrographer-in-Charge was second only to God and when one of the senior HIC's directed him to go fetch an item and Ralph replied, "Go get it yourself. You are closer than I am!", you can imagine what followed. Ralph was not heard from for ten years, but finally emerged as an HIC.

When Ralph was asked what he was going to do upon retirement he said, "Make money!" when questioned how he was going to do this, especially at his age, he replied that he was going to raise bees and a few chickens. This is typical of Ralph who after seven children decided to learn something about the birds and bees.

Source: Lighthouse, April 1984, p. 48.

Obituary, sent 24 Jan 2009 by J. Kean:

86, Dartmouth, passed away peacefully at home early Friday morning, Jan 23, 2009. Born in Springhill, he was the son of the late Herbert and Elizabeth (Harvey) Cameron. Ralph is survived by his loving wife of over 50 years, Maria (DeLaude) Cameron. Ralph started his career as a coal miner. He served during the Second World War with the North Nova Scotia Highlanders and also served with the RCAF 113th Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron. As a radio/wireless operator, gunner and pilot. Ralph was engaged in anti-submarine warfare during the battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and convoy escort missions in the North Atlantic. Later, he was transferred to Bomber Command in Europe where he continued convoy escorting and anti-submarine warfare. During D-Day, he flew photo-intelligence missions over Normandy and other missions in Europe until the end of the war. After the Second World War, Ralph attended Mt. Allison University and later was hired by the Canadian Hydrographic Service. Working out of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Ralph worked for 35 years charting Canadian waters. He served as Chief Hydrographer of the HMCS Acadia. Ralph retired from the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 1984. He had a passion for astronomy and loved spending time in the outdoors at his cottage. 

• 1952-53 - Cape Spear area.
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Bedford Institute, Field Officer ( Technical Officer 4)
1964 - Hydrographer, CSS Kapuskasing - Chaleur Bay
1965 - Hydrographer, CSS Maxwell & CHL Eider - Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Gulf of St Lawrence
1966 - Senior Hydrographer - CSS Acadia - Magdalen Ilands, Que - Newfoundland
1967 - Senior Assistant - Shore Party # 1 - western NS, Kejimkujik Lake, Trinity Ledge, Pubnico to Yarmouth
1968 - Senior Assistant - CSS Acadia - Isle Aux Morts and Hamilton Sound, Nfld
1970 - Senior Assistant - Saint John River survey NB (4 May to 30 Oct)

Dr. W.M. Cameron

• 1960 - appointed to head oceanography within Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys
• 1962 - Director, Marine Science Branch.

C. Campbell

• 1966 - Technician - CSS Baffin - Taul of the Bank (28 Aug to 1 Nov)

Donald Colin Campbell

   born 14 Sept. 1863 in India (1901 census)

• 1883 - graduate of Royal Military College
• 1st May 1885, appointed second assistant to Cdr. Boulton's staff.
• 1892 - transferred from the Outside Service of the Georgian Bay Survey to the Inside Service of the Chief Engineer's Branch
• Campbell Rock (45° 15'N, 80° 14'W), Colin Rock (45° 28'N, 80° 31'W) named after him.

Miss E. Campbell

• 1927-29 - temporary office assistant, Tidal Survey section

L. Campbell

   1965 - Joined CHS
1967/68 - working level draftsman - Ottawa

Charles Camsell

• Sept. 11, 1936 - appointed Deputy Minister of Mines and Resources

M. John S. Cann

• 1923-39 - Chief Engineer, ACADIA
• 1947 - Chief Engineer, ACADIA

A.M. Canning

   1969 - Hydrographic Assistant - CSS Kapuskasing - Fogo Island NFLD (25 June - 13 Oct)
1969/70-Training-Hydro I
1970 - Hydrographer -  Shore party No.2 -Ship Harbour to Liscomb Harb, NS - 4 May to 19 June (resigned)

Alfred Carbonneau

   born 1 June 1875 in Ontario (1901 census)

• 1906-18 - responsible for chart distribution and routine messenger service.
• 1922-40 - working in chart distribution.
• 1927 - Clerk-Messenger.
• June 1940 - retired.

Jeff Card

   1962 - Student Assistant - CHL Cygnet - Ottawa River survey

R.W. Card

• 1963 - Assistant Hydrographer - Richardson - Western Arctic
1964 - Assistant Hydrographer - CSS Marabell - April 13 to 24 - resigned

Hon. P.J.A. Cardin

• 1930 - Minister of Marine

T.J. (Justin) Carew

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tides and Water Level Section, Asst. Technician 3
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Tides and Water Levels, Data Collection (Technician 1)
• 1966 - Tides and Water Levels, Central Region. (Field assignment - Atlantic Region - gauging)

E.A. Carey

• 1852-59 As a Master, surveyed Great Bras d’Or, under Bayfield (chart BA2687)
• 1859 - on sub-party on St. Lawrence River
• 1860-63 – surveyed Bay Bulls to Placentia, under Orlebar (chart BA2915)
• 1862-71 surveyed C. Bonavista – Bay Bulls, nfld. Under Orlebar (chart BA296)

Dr. Charles Carpmael

• 1887 - Director of the Meteorological Service (responsible for tides)
• 1892-93 - toured Eastern Canada for tidal gauge sites.

A. Carr

   1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)    1969 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods Survey, Ont. (May 21 to Aug 29)

Lt. John Cartwright

• 1768 – surveyed Notre Dame Bay & Exploits River, Nfld.
• Cartwright, Lab. probably named after him

G.A.Y. Casavant

• 1965 - Summer Student ( May? to 7 Sept) - CHL SHAG - St Lawrence River survey
1966 - Summer Student - St Lawrence River Survey (19 May to 9 Sept)
1967 - Summer Student - Murray Trent Canals survey, Ont (9 May to 8 Sept)

Michael J. Casey

Mike Casey is the Chief, Hydrographic Development at the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) headquarters in Ottawa. Prior to this, he was a senior hydrographer with the CHS Central Region in Burlington, Ontario. While with the CHS, he received his B. Sc. in mathematics from McMaster University and has anM.Sc.   pending [in 1987], also from McMaster, for which he has done extensive work on developing geostatistical approaches to contouring data. From 1983 to 1986, he was the CHS Scientific Authority on the LARSEN Coastal Mapping System project on developing lidar surveying. He is the author of many papers on different aspects of hydrography, most recently focusing on automatic contouring and the development of        lidar  technology.

Sources: The Canadian Surveyor, Summer 1987, p. 171.
The Canadian Surveyor, Autumn 1986, p. 260.

   1967 - Lake Surveillance Program
• 1967/68-Training-Hydro I
Photos: Hydro I 1967/68
   1968 - Hydrographer - Ottawa River Survey - Bryson to Hog Island (April to 6 Sept)
1968 - Hydrographer - Trent-Severn Survey, Ont (8 Sept to 31 Oct)
1969 - Hydrographer - Rideau Waterway survey, Ont (8 Sept - 22 Nov)

Peter John Casey

5 July 1937 – 28 October 2003

Peter John Casey died Tuesday October 28, 2003, in Ruby Memorial Hospital, Morgantown, West Virginia.  He was born July 5, 1937 in London, England, a son of Joseph Casey and Elizabeth Duffy.  He emigrated to Canada in 1950.

Peter was educated in Toronto and earned a degree in civil engineering from the University of Toronto.  He received a masters degree in environmental engineering from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  Prior to his position if Program Coordinator of Small Flows, at West Virginia University, a position he held for the last nine years, Peter was Director of Public Health Engineering for the Province of Nova Scotia.  He was the town engineer of Glace Bay from 1965-70.  Peter was married to Jean Gillis and had three children, Christopher, Halifax; Jeffrey, Halifax; and Aine Casey Tan, Wolfville.

Source: Cape Breton Post, Sydney, NS. 

My recollection of Peter’s history with the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) is that he started work with CHS in 1960 and was assigned to the CSS Acadia under HIC, Hiro Furuya.  In 1961, he was with Chuck Leadman on the St. Lawrence River.  In 1962, he served on the CSS Baffin, under the direction of HIC, Russ Melanson.  During 1963,m he worked in the office with the primary assignment of selecting transmitter sites for Hi-Fix, In 1964 he was second in charge of the Acadia.

I had the great pleasure of spending that very interesting season with him.  We spent considerable time around Botwood, Newfoundland and were generally up and down the coast on numerous jobs.  We had a great summer, getting in to St. John’s for bunker once a month was eventful as John O’Shea, Peter Casey and I were off doing what bad boys usually do when given too much rope.  I remember Peter and I drinking downtown on one of these trips and were late getting back to the ship; everyone was lined up on the rail, gangplank about to come up and Captain Taylor fuming.  Peter and I casually (under the influence) walked aboard with cases of beer under our arms.

We went to Ottawa that fall and Bob Marshall, John O’Shea, Peter Casey and I did the usual compilation of data in the office.  We saw quite a lot of each other socially over the next couple of years.  Peter then got an offer to go to Glace Bay as Town Engineer.  He moved to Cape Breton in 1965; I moved home to New Waterford in 1968 and we saw a lot of each other over the years until he went to USA for studies and eventual employment.

Peter and I traveled from Cape Breton to Halifax and back in 2003 to attend the most recent reunion of the Acadia.  This trip was the last I saw of him.  He and I were good friends; he was an interesting man; intelligent and proud of his work.  He was a great companion.  The repartee between Peter Casey, John O’Shea and myself was priceless.

Source: J.W. (Buzzy) Connors (March 2004)  Lighthouse, Ed. 65, Summer 2004.

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Engineer 1
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Central Region, Field Officer (Engineer 1)
1964 - Senior Assistant Hydrographer - CSS Acadia - PEI, NS, Nfld (from Ottawa)

D.J. Cashen

• 1960 - classification in 1960: St.  Draftsman
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 2, Group C ( Draftsman Grade 1)

Richard W. Cashen

Dick Cashen, the Chief of the Quality Control and Services section at the CHS Headquarters, retired at the end of March 1989. In his 40 years as a cartographer with the CHS, Dick developed a level of expertise and excellence that will be hard to match. Dick's skills and energies were not all devoted to the cause of hydrography; he has been a key figure in Ottawa's amateur sports world. In the 1950s, Dick was awarded the Athlone Trophy as Ottawa's best cricket player and in 1963 Dick was named Cricketer of the year. It's only within the last few years that Dick has given up cricket; he can now concentrate all his efforts on fishing.

Source: Lighthouse, Spring 1989, p. 40.

• 1960 - classification in 1960:  Draftsman 3
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Chart Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 1 A, (draftsman 3)
1967 - working level draftsman - Ottawa

T. Casserly

• 1966/67-Training-Hydro I (Class Photo)

A. Cassidy

• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Chart Distribution (Typist 2)

Miss M.E. Cassidy

• Dec. 1941 - appointed Student Draftsman as chart corrector.
• 1947 - listed as Student Draftsman in chart drafting section
• 1960 - classification in 1960:  Draftsman 3
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 2, Group E (Draftsman Grade 3)

T. Cassidy

   1964 - taken on strength - compilation unit - Ottawa
1967/68 - working level compiler - Ottawa

R. Cassivi

• 1964 - BIO - Attached to CSS Kapuskasing (5 July - 5 Aug) - Chaleur Bay
1964 - Electronic Technician - CSS Baffin - 11 Aug - 17 Sept - Bay of Fundy survey

  ChamLieut. B.Mbers, R.N.

• 1895 - survey of Menzies Bay (near Seymour Narrows, B.C. (chart BA 3162)

  Chan, Grant

• 1977-Cartography I course

Photos: Carto I 1977

Cyril George Champ


Cyril Champ was born on 19th April, 1928 in London, England. On completing elementary school education, he won a scholarship to Hendon Country Grammar School. He joined the Ordnance Survey in 1944 and after training, was employed as a lightkeeper and booker on secondary and tertiary triangulation.

On 6th June, 1946, Cyril enlisted in the Royal Engineers and after completing basic military and field engineering training, he was assigned to the Survey Training Centre (now School of Military Survey). After training, he was posted to Middle East Survey Directorate, was promoted to Sergeant and given the task of overhauling the Map Library.

In august 1948, after release from military service, Cyril joined No. 1 Survey Production Centre R.E. and was made librarian in charge of the trigonometrical and Technical Libraries.

In August 1956, Cyril responded to a competition poster for a "Curator of Hydrographic Documents" in the Canadian Hydrographic Service. He was offered the post, accepted it on 14th January, 1957 and with his wife Paula arrived in Ottawa on 1st April, 1957. Although Cyril was hired as a Chart Curator, he spent much of his time as a key assistant to the Superintendent of Charts and other senior hydrographic personnel.

In 1962, he became a Technical Assistant to the Superintendent of Charts and in 1965 Technical Assistant to the Dominion Hydrographer.

In 1971, Cyril left the CHS to become Executive Assistant to the ADM (Water Sector), Department of the Environment, but in 1974 Cyril returned to CHS as Staff Assistant to the Dominion Hydrographer. He continued in this position until his sudden death, except for a period of 18 months as Staff Assistant to the ADM (Ocean Sciences and Surveys), Department of Fisheries and Oceans in 1980-81.

Cyril will be remembered for his tireless effort on behalf of the CHS, for his excellent memory and his willing manner.

Source: Lighthouse, April 1984, p. 48.
I think Cyril Champ was a recipient of the Centennial Medal in 1967.
Source: David Gray

• 1961 - Headquarters Staff, Technical Officer (Technical Officer 4)
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Technical Assistant to Dominion Hydrographer (Technical Officer 5)

C. Chantigney

   1965 - Joined CHS
1967/68 - working level draftsman - Ottawa

R.E. (Ray) Chapeskie

• 1967/68-Training-Hydro I
Photos: Hydro I 1967/68
   1968 - Hydrographer - Ottawa River survey - Bryson to Hog Island
1969 = Hydrographer - Ottawa River survey - Temiskaming to Rapides des Joachims, Ont and Que
1970 - Hydrographer - kapuskasing - Nova Scottia, Nfld (11 May - 28 June)
1970 - Hydrographer - Baffin - Arctic Survey (8 July - 16 Oct)

Samuel (Saoul? 1901 Census) Jefferson Chapleau, C.E.

   born 1 January 1869 in United States (1901 census)

• 1902 – surveys of St. Lawrence River, Thousand Islands section
• prior to 1904- Officer in DPW survey from Brockville to Kingston.
• 1904 - came from Public Works upon amalgamation as Assistant to Chief Hydrographer.
• 1904- Officer in Charge of Lake St. Francis survey.
• August 1904 - returned to Dept. Public Works as Engineer-in-Charge of the Nipissing District (between DesJoachims - above Pembroke- and Georgian Bay).

P.A. Chapman

• 1964 - Army Survey Establishment - Attached to CSS Kapuskasing - Chaleur Bay

Hector Charbonneau

• resident of Natashquan, P.Q., sailor on CARTIER
• 8 June 1931 - drowned on Netagamu River, North Shore of Gulf during a survey.

D'Arcy H. Charles


D'Arcy Charles was born in Westmount, Quebec in 1910. After two years at McGill University, where he studied biology, engineering and surveying, he held a number of jobs in agriculture. Mr. Charles enlisted in the Navy in 1939 and served throughout the war as a Canadian officer on loan to the Royal Navy, all of his service being in minesweepers. After the war, with his expertise gained in minesweeping which required great precision in navigation, Mr. Charles joined the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 1945 as a hydrographer.

In 1950, Mr. Charles was appointed HIC of his first Arctic survey, working at the head of Frobisher Bay. At the completion of the survey, on a hunch that the Pike-Resor Channel might be a feasible route, he sent a launch through the channel and obtained a line of deep soundings. This route was developed in 1957 and is now the recognized safe navigation passage into upper Frobisher Bay.

Mr. Charles returned to Frobisher Bay in 1951 and from 1952 to 1956 he surveyed Ungava Bay. In 1957, he surveyed the south coast of Newfoundland from Cape Race to Cape Ray. In 1958, returned to the Arctic as HIC on board CSS Baffin, and surveyed Resolute Bay and Radstock Bay.

From 1950 to 1962, Mr. Charles spent 12 seasons in the Arctic; his surveys opened much of Ungava Bay and the eastern Northwest Passage to shipping. D'Arcy Charles retired in 1969, having spent his last two years with the CHS as Chief of Ships Division.

Source: Lighthouse, Fall 1989, p. 51.

D’Arcy Charles has served Canada well both in war and in peace, as a naval officer from 1939 to 1945 and as a dedicated hydrographic surveyor in the Canadian Hydrographic Service from 1945 to 1969.  As officer-in-charge of hydrographic surveys for some 23 years, Charles was solely responsible for the accuracy of charts resulting from his surveys on the east coast of Canada and in Arctic waters.  Their precision has never been questioned.  Prior to his retirement in 1969 he did 12 seasons in Arctic Surveys from 1950 to 1962 and literally openned up Ungava Bay, Resolute Bay and the eastern end of the North West Passage to Arctic shipping.  Many of these highly detailed Arctic surveys were of a hazardous nature for survey ship and the men on board in uncharted waters.  His surveys and charts are in current use by Arctic shipping during the navigation season.  D’Arcy Charles was a great seaman, an outstanding Arctic hydrographer and explorer and an enthusiastic leader of all who served with him.  He never lost a man in 23 years of difficult operations at sea in ships or launches with the CHS. 

Source: Application for Order of Canada January 1989 (not awarded, probably because his death intervened)

In the early seventies, I believe he had a contract with CHS for writing the Sailing Directions for the St. Lawrence River.

A query with Geographical Names shows that an underwater feature in the arctic has been named in his memory: D'Arcy Charles Trough, Lat 63-07-32 N, Long 67-47-42 W. This falls on chart 7121 but in 2003 was not yet displayed on that chart. (Canadian Geographical Names Data Bank unique identifier\; MAGBA)

• 1946 - technician on St. Margaret's Bay & Halifax survey.
• 1947 - Halifax survey.
• 1948-49 - surveyed Grand Manan, N.B. (chart 4342)
• 1950 - Officer in Charge of ALGERINE, Port Burwell & Frobisher Bay surveys.
• 1951 - Officer in Charge of ALGERINE, Hudson Strait surveys
1953 - Officer in Charge of ALGERINE, Leaf Lake and Bay. Reconnaissance of Kyak Bay in Payne Bay
1954 - Officer in Charge of ALGERINE, west coast of Ungava Bay, Payne Bay, Approaches to Leaf Bay.
1955 - Officer in Charge of ALGERINE, Hopes Advance Bay , Ungava Bay
1956 - Officer in Charge of ALGERINE, Hopes Advance Bay, Payne Bay, Ungava Bay
1957 - Officer in Charge of Kapuskasing, South Coast of Newfoundland
• 1958 - Officer in Charge of BAFFIN, Frobisher Bay
• 1959 - Officer in Charge of BAFFIN, Hudson Strait
• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 9
• 1960 - Officer in Charge of BAFFIN, Lancaster Sound
1962 - Superintendent of  Hydrography
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Superintendent of Hydrography, (as Technical Officer 10)

G.E. Charles

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Map Compiler and Computer 2
• 1968 - working level compiler - Aids Section - Ottawa


• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 3 • April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Head Chart Revision Compilation (as Technical Officer 3)

I. Charron

   1970 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods survey ( June 24)

J.R.A. Chartrand

• 1961 - Chart Production, Clerk (Clerk 2)
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Chart Distribution (Clerk 2)

. Charton (Chartrand?)

• 1904 - became a regular assistant on amalgamation.
• 1905-07 - Lake St. Francis survey.

A. (or H.) Chatigny

• 1904 - became a regular assistant on amalgamation.
• 1904 - Lake Winnipeg survey.

Lieut. C.P. Chearnley, R.N.

• 1907-09 - on HMS EGERIA, survey of Browning Entrance (chart BA 2453)

Mrs. M.P. Chenier

• Aug. 1947 - appointed as a typist in records and accounts at Headquarters

M. Chener

• 1965 - taken on strength - compilation unit - Ottawa
1967 - transferred to Navigation Aids - Ottawa 

Jack Chester

• 1933 - Cook on shore party, Hudson Strait
• took tide gauge readings by telescope from dining hall door.

Mrs. Chettleburgh

• 1942 - appointed as Student Draftsman at the Victoria Office.

Commander Wm. Chimmo, R.N.

• 1867 - surveys on Labrador Coast.
• 1867 – surveyed Ice Tickle & Indian Harbour, Lab., HMS Gannet (chart BA222)
•  1867 – surveyed Webeck Harbour, HMS Gannet (chart 4738 (formerly BA223))
• Chimmo Rock (chart 5135) named after him

J.W. (Jack) Chivas

   1960 - In charge - Western Arctic Survey for the Arctic Pilot Vol.3.
1961 - Hydrographic Assistant - RCMP Spalding - Western Arctic
1964 - Hydrographer - Wm J, Stewart - BC
1965 - Hydrographer - Marabell - Various BC surveys 
1966 - Hydrographer - Marabell - Various BC surveys.
1967 - Hydrographer (TO 4) - CSS Wm J Stewart - BC Coast (17 April - 5 May)
1968 - Hydrographer (TO 4) - CSS Wm J Stewart - BC Coast (16 April to 14 June, left for CAMSELL)
1968 - Hydrographer in Charge - CCGS Camsell - Western Arctic (2 July to 19 Sept) 
1969 - Senior Hydrographer - CSS Wm J Stewart - Strait of Georgia, BC (15 April to 20 June) (ESS 7)
1969 - Hydrographer in charge - CCGS Camsell - western Arctic (7 July to 13 Sept)
1970 - Hydrographer (ESS 7) - Wm J Stewart - BC Strait of Georgia (15 April - 1 May)
1973 - Revisory survey for Sailing Directions of Kootenay Lake and River
• 1997 – died.

G. Christie

   1967 - Sooke Harb. and Approaches (17 Apr to 9 June)

M. Cinq-Mars

• 1904 - became a regular assistant on amalgamation.
• 1904 - Lake Winnipeg survey.

G.G. Clark

• 1968/69 - Training - Hydro I

H.G. Clark

• 1947 - Inside Passage survey

N.I. Clark

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 1
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Bedford Institute, Field Officer ( as Technical Officer 1)

E.B. Clarke

   1966 - Hydrographic Assistant - CSS Acadia - Newfoundland - 7 Sept - 13 Oct
• 1966/67-Training-Hydro I (Class Photo)
1967 - Hydrographer - CSS Marabell - BC Coast - various locations
1968 - Hydrographer - Marabell - Various BC locations
1969 - Hydrographer - CSS Wm J Stewart - Strait of Georgia and Prince Rupert area, BC (15 April to 5 Oct)     (ESS 4)
1973 (Annual Report) - Hydrographer-in Charge - CSS Pariseau - Multidiscipline - Amundsen Gulf, between Banks Island and Cape Parry.

John Hughes Clarke

John Hughes Clark has degrees in Geology (BA, Oxford) and Oceanography (M.Sc., Southampton; Ph.D., Dalhousie).  He has worked in the field of marine swath mapping since 1983, initially in deep water at BIO and James Cook University, Australia, but more recently in shallow water at UNB, where is an associate professor.  With a primary interest in seabed sediment transport, he has focused on the limits of the topographic and textural information that can be collected from acoustic swath sonar surveying.

 Source: 1998 Canadian Hydrographic Conference Proceedings, p. 6.

J.K. Clarke

• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 2, Group E (Draftsman grade 1)

L.M. Clarke

• 1930 - Lake Superior survey.
• 1931-34 - Magdalen Islands survey
• 1935 - Cape Breton - Magdalen Is. survey
• 1936 - Cape Breton survey.
• spring 1937 - resigned.

Frederick Arthur Clawson

   born 15 Sept 1888 in Saint John, New Brunswick (1901 Census)

• 1914 - water level studies, St. Lawrence River

Nicholas Edmund  (Nick) Cleary

Nick Cleary was born in London, England in 1925.  In 1943 he enrolled in the 4th Prince of Wales Own Gurkha Regiment, retiring after the war with the rank of Captain.  Nick then studied at London University, where he obtained a degree in mathematics and astronomy. 

Later he came to Canada, where he was employed by the federal government as a survey engineer based in Ottawa, firstly with Topographical Survey, then with Geodetic Survey of Canada.  After a period at the University of New Brunswick, studying glaciology, and a year teaching high school english and mathematics, he joined the Canadian Hydrographic Service.

With the Topographical Survey, Nick worked as a field engineer: he was one of the last of the Topo surveyors to work in the mountains with packhorses.  With Geodetic Survey, he worked as a field astronomer, as a surveyor seconded to the Defence Research Board to measure glacier movement in the high Arctic, and as a member of the Canadian team supporting the U.S. Satellite Triangulation project.  With the Hydrographic Service he was involved with control survey data, and providing advice on international maritime boundaries.

Nick had many friends, and there are many anecdotes about him.  One of them concerned his decision to swim down the icy cold Yukon River the last two miles to Dawson City, rather than follow the riverside trail.  (He made it, but had the help of a passing boat!)  He rolled his own cigarettes, loosely, and the ashes and embers that fell on his shirts are well remembered.  He had a wide repertoire of songs like The Miner’s Lament and The Peephole in the Door.  He amused his friends with his imitation of the bagpipes.  Nick will be fondly remembered.

Nick passed away at home, in Ottawa, on September 27, 2001, after suffering for many years from multiple sclerosis.  He is survived by his wife Doris, children Michael and Charmion, and grandchildren Alexi, Sabrina, Christopher, Daniel and Ashleigh.

Nick retired from the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 1987.  He had been involved with maritime boundaries and had worked in the Nautical Geodesy section.  He came to CHS from the Geodetic Survey Division of EMR.

Sources: Geomatica, Volume 56, No. 1, 2002, p. 82
Lighthouse, Nov. 1987, p. 22.

Nick Cleary was born circa 1925 in England.  He joined the British Army and served in the 4th Prince of Wales Own Gurkha Rifle Regiment, serving in Italy during the Second World War , in India and Malaysia.  He felt fortunate to miss D-Day, where many of his school chum were killed, and survived a slaughter of his Regiment in Malaysia.  He retired at the rank of Captain.  He was a surveyor and glaciologist with Department of Mines & Technical Surveys (Topographic and Geodetic Surveys) having field experience in the Yukon, Northwest Territories and British Columbia where horses were the typical means of transportation.  He joined Canadian Hydrographic Service where he did survey adjustments and maritime boundary work until his retirement in 1987.

He suffered from Multiple Sclerosis and died 27th September 2001 in Ottawa.

Captain Clerke

• 1776-1780 – Captain of HMS Discovery (Cook’s third voyage of discovery)
• Feb. 1779 – took over leadership of expedition after Cook’s death
• August 1779 or Aug. 1780 – died of consumption on board HMS Discovery.
Source: the Hydrographic Journal, July 1999

Clerke Islet (50° 12’N, 127° 50’W), Clerke Peninsula (49° 37’N, 126° 31’W), Clerke Point (50° 05’N, 127° 48’W), Clerke Reefs (50° 13’ 00”N, 127° 52’W), British Columbia named after him.

Mr. Clifton

• 1859 - survey of Labrador Coast with Orlebar
• 1860-63 – surveyed Bay Bulls to Placentia, under Orlebar (chart BA2915)

George Clinton

• Attorney, Buffalo, NY
• 1902 - International Waterways Commission.

Lieut. G. Cloué (French Navy)

• 1850-58 - survey of C. Onion to Hare Bay, Nfld. (chart BA 271)
• 1858 – surveyed Savage Cove to St. Barbe Bay, Nfld. (chart BA220)

V. Coady

• 1964 - Electronic Technician - CSS Baffin - Bay of Fundy survey
1966 - CSS Kapukasing - Chaleur Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence (14 Oct to 26 Oct)

T.E. Coffin

• 1945 - appointed as 'Seaman Technical'
• 1945 - Strait of Canso survey.

Staff Commander J.E. Coghlan, R.N.

• 1868 As a Nav. Lt., surveyed Nass Bay, under Pender (chart BA2190)
• 1877-81 - survey C. St. John-Toulinguet - under Maxwell (chart BA 285)
• Coghlan Reef (45º 35’ 32”, 80º 33’ 40”W) probably named after him.


Harris Cohen

• 1903 - (seasonal) Acting First Assistant to Mr. Stewart, Lake Superior survey

F.A. Coldham

• 1965/66-Training-Hydro I (Class Photo)
1966 - Field assignment, Pacific Region - Wm. J. Stewart
1966 - Hydrographer - Wm J Stewart - BC Coast - 18 Apr to 15 Oct
1967 - Hydrographer - CSS Marabell - BC Coast - various locations
1968 - Hydrographer (Tech 1) - Wm J Stewart - BC Coast - numerous locations

Arthur William W. Cole, D.L.S.

• Dominion Land Surveyor.
• 1934 - appointed to Precise Water Levels section
• 1934-39 - in Precise Waters section.
• 1941 - promoted to Secretary, Board of Examiners for DLS.
• 1960 - retired.

Dr. Arthur E. Collin

At the recent DFO Science Managers meeting  (2008), Wendy Watson-Wright presented the ADM Distinction Award to Dr. Arthur Collin.

Dr. Collin began his distinguished career in the service of Canada in 1955 as a research scientist with the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Over the years, he held a number of senior positions in the Public Service, including: Assistant Deputy Minister, Fisheries Research; Assistant Deputy Minister, Atmospheric Environment Service; Associate Deputy Minister, Department of Energy Mines and Resources; and Science Advisor to the Government of Canada and Secretary of the Minister of State for Science and Technology.

As the Dominion Hydrographer of Canada (1967-1972), he established a university accredited Canadian training program for hydrographic science and rebuilt the Canadian Hydrographic Service into a world-class institution that has served as a model for many other Maritime nations.

As Science Advisor to the Government of Canada and Secretary of the Ministry of State for Science and Technology (1984), he was instrumental in the creation of University Research Chairs and the federal Network of Centres of Excellence which continue to exist and flourish today. Later Dr. Collin became the founding Director of the Institute for Robotics and Intelligence Systems (IRIS), a Network Centre of Excellence. He also left his mark at the Privy Council Office where he was instrumental in developing and moving forward legislation to establish the Canadian Space Agency.

Up until 2006, Dr. Collin served as a member of the Science and Technology Advisory Council to the Government of Canada and the Council of Science and Technology Advisors. During this time, Dr. Collin also made major contributions to the development and growth of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society as President of the Society.

In keeping with his long-time interest in advancing the understanding of climate change and Canada's North, Dr. Collin currently sits as the Chair of the Board of Directors for the Polar Climate Stability Network, funded by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS).

Over the last eight years, Dr. Collin has been instrumental in providing advice that has helped shape the DFO Science Program through his work as Chairman of the Science Advisory Council, and more recently, representing the Science Advisory Council as a member on the Department's Science Management Board.

Wendy expressed her gratefulness to him for this contribution and said ''Throughout his public service career and retirement he has exemplified leadership excellence in developing, contributing to, and implementing initiatives that have strengthened the Government of Canada's science and technology capacity in support of public policy and the management of federal science.''

Source: ADM Distinction Award for Dr. Arthur Collin

PS: Dr. Collin was awarded the DFO Prix d'Excellence in 2009.

In 1968*, Dr. Arthur E. Coll

Source: The Canadian Surveyor, December 1982, p. 174.

Dr. Collin's involvement in the Arctic spans the spectrum of active ocean research from scientist in the early ‘60 through being a Dominion Hydrographer in the early 1970s to currently being a member on the Canadian Federal Government's Council of Science and Technology.  As well, he is the chairman of the Science Advisory Council of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, which advices the Assistant Deputy Minister on all matters related to marine sciences, including oceanography and hydrography.  Dr. Collin is the immediate past President of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society and currently is the Board Chairperson of the Canadian Polar Climate Stability Network.

Source: In the Loop-DFO Intranet

Rear Admiral K.St.B. Collins, CB, OBE, DSC

Kenneth St. Barbe Collins was born in 1904, son of Col. C.B. Collins, Royal Engineers. He entered the Royal Navy through Osborne and Dartmouth Colleges. He took up surveying as a sublieutenant in 1926, joining HMS Fitzroy working on the east coast of England. Promoted to lieutenant, he served from 1927 to 1929 in HMS Ormonde on Indian Ocean and Malacca Strait surveys. After a short spell at home in HMS Beaufort, he was abroad again from 1930 to 1932 in HMS Herald working on the Borneo coast, in the approaches to Hong Kong, and in the 'dangerous area' in the South China Sea.

In 1932, Collins came home to HMS Flinders surveying on the south and west coasts of England. He then, in 1933, went abroad to HMS Endeavour working successively on the west coast of Africa, in the eastern Mediterranean, and on the west coasts of Siam and Malaya. After a meteorological course at the Air Ministry in 1936, he went back to HMS Herald surveying in the South China Sea and on the coasts of Borneo and Malaya.

He came ashore in 1939 to be naval assistant in Chart Branch, and when war broke out he went as meteorological officer in the seaplane carrier HMS Albatross, based at Freetown, Sierra Leone, and operating against the Graf Spee. He was promoted commander in 1940 and went in command of HMS Scott for two years' extremely arduous surveying with the minelaying squadron in northern waters. During this time, he was involved with the raid on the Lofoten Islands, Operation Anklet, and was awarded the DSC. From 1942 to 1944, he was on the staff of Admiral Ramsey, Allied Naval Commander Expeditionary Forces, first for the North African landings and then for those on Sicily and Normandy. He was awarded the OBE in 1945.

There followed two years as Superintendent of Charts. On promotion to captain in 1947, he went in command of HMS Seagull surveying on the west coasts of England and Scotland and in the northern approaches to the Irish Sea, where he was among the first to use radar for surveying. In 1948, he took the newly commissioned HMS Dampier to survey in Malaya and north western Borneo. From 1949 to 1950, he returned to the Hydrographic Department as Superintendent of Charts again. The following year, he took command of HMS Cook surveying on the west coast of Scotland, taking a university expedition to and from Spitzbergen and making oceanographic observations on passage. In 1952, he came ashore again to the Department, and from 1953 to 1954 was Assistant Hydrographer.

Collins' last sea command came in 1954, when he commissioned the newly completed HMS Vidal. After surveys off the west coast of Scotland, he took her to Washington with Hydrographic Department personnel embarked. While surveying in the West Indies later in the year, the ship took a prominent part in relief work after a hurricane devastated much of Haiti, and Collins was made a commander of the 'Ordre National d'Honneur et Merite'.

Shortly after his appointment as Hydrographer in succession to Day in June 1955, Collins was made a commodore, and was promoted to rear admiral in 1956. He was a strong advocate of the close alliance of hydrography and oceanography, and of the use of modern technology and materials both in the office and afloat.

He was made a CB in 1959, and after his retirement in 1960 became Advisor to the Canadian Hydrographic Service until 1963. He then returned to England to live in retirement near Farnham in Surrey.

Source: © Morris, R.O., Charts and Surveys in Peace and War, pp. 176-7.

Lieut. Philip Edward Collins, R.N.

• 1815 - surveyed with Bayfield in Bay of Quinte (as a midshipman)
• 1817-19 - surveyed with Bayfield in Lake Erie & Lake St. Clair
• 1820-22 - surveyed with Bayfield in Lake Huron, Georgian Bay & North Channel
• 1823-25 - surveyed with Bayfield in Lake Superior
• fall 1825 - returned to England to prepare charts
• 1827 (as a lieutenant) surveying Quebec harbour
• 1833 - stricken with apoplexy in an open sailboat (BEAUFORT) off Magdalen Islands and died.
• Collins Inlet, Georgian Bay named after him.

Captain J.W.F. Combe, R.N.

• 1908-12 - as Capt. (ret'd), Officer in Charge of H.M. Newfoundland survey.
• 1908-10 - survey of Rich Point to Current I. (chart BA 282, 284)
• 1909-10 - triangulation & Offshore surveys E of Newfoundland (chart BA 232b, 285)
• 1910 - surveyed St John Harbour & Good Bay, Nfld west coast (chart 4680)
• 1911 - surveyed Bonne Bay to Bay of Islands, Hare Bay
• 1912 - surveyed St. John's Harbour & approaches
• Coombes Rock (chart 4618) and Coomb’s Cove (chart 4830) possibly named after him

E.J. Comeau

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 1
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Central Region, Field Officer  (Technical Officer 1) will be transferred to Bedford Institute in 1963.
1964 - Hydrographer - CSS Baffin - Bay of Fundy survey
1965 - Hydrographer - CSS Kapuskasing - Chaleur Bay (NB and Que)
1966 - Rotation - Hydrographer - Halifax harbour deep draught ship channel (28 June to 30 Sept)
1967 - Senior Assistat Hydrographer - Shore Party # 2 - Ship Harb to Sheet Harb, NS (15 May to 5 Sept)
1967 - Hydrographer - CSS Baffin - Grand Bank of Nfld (11 Sept - 27 Oct)
1969 - Senior Assistant - CSS Kapuskasing - shore party NS and Fogo Island NFLD

John Harold Comeau

1929 -

• April 1953                    Joined Canadian Hydrographic Service
• April 1953 - May '56    Hydrographer, Shoreparty                                                    Nova Scotia
• May 1956 - 1973         Head, Quality Control Unit, Carttographic Section                 Ottawa
• 1973 - 1985        Head, Production Control and Standards for nautical charts   Ottawa


        I was born in Belmont, Massachusetts, USA in 1929. Moved to Nova Scotia in 1930. Spent two years at St. Anne's University, NS, studying Business Administration. Attended the Nova Scotia Land Surveying School in Lawrencetown, NS, where I obtained a Surveying Certificate and License in Surveying for the Province of Nova Scotia in 1950.

        From September 1950 to December 1951, I was employed by the Federal Department of Agriculture surveying in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick for the rehabilitation of marshlands.

        In 1952 I spent 10 months working on the re-building of Goose Bay, Labrador airport facilities.

        In April 1953 I joined the Canadian Hydrographic Service and until May 1956 was a field hydrographer on a shore party in Nova Scotia.

        Then in May 1956 I was appointed to head the Quality Control Unit in the Cartographic Section in Ottawa. Here in 1970 I was a key player in selecting a new format for CHS bilingual nautical charts. Served two years (1972 and 1974) on the board of the Cartographic Advisory Committee for Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology in Ottawa.

        In 1973 was promoted to Head of Production Control and Standards for nautical charts and retained this position until my retirement in February 1985, after 33 years of public service. In 1975 I produced the first bilingual "Manual of Cartographic Terminology" as a reference guide for the production of bilingual charts. Also served in an acting capacity as Head of Quebec Region Chart Production for 7 months in 1978 and in Dartmouth, NS, for four months in 1981.Was Acting Director of Cartogrphy for a period in 1983.

       After retirement I operated a successful woodcraft business from 1985 to 1997.

       In February 1999 I joined the "Friends of Hydrography" volunteer group. A group recording hydrographic data for posterity. 

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 4
•  April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Chart Inspection (Technical Officer 4)


Miss Catherine A. Condon

born 10 Oct. 1897 in Nova Scotia (1901 census)
• September 1916 - appointed to CHS staff to assist with typing.
• 1918-39 - listed as clerk-stenographer.                 
• 1946 - resigned?

Cyril G. Connelly

1901 - ????

Born Calcutta, now Bangladesh, 18 March 1901.  By 1919 he was doing hydrographic surveys for the Naval Administration of India on the Hooghly River.  He moved to England in 1936.  During World War 2, he was laying buoys on the Welsh and Irish coasts, doing hydrographic sketch surveys in Northern Ireland and Iceland.  He immigrated to Canada in 1948 and joined CHS in 1949.  In 1950-52 he was on Kapuskasing doing Decca positioned surveys.  In 1962 he was assigned to Headquarters, and retired in March 1968.

Source: Soundings, June 1968.

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 4
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Special Projects (Technical Officer 4)
• March 18, 1968 - retires from CHS.

John Wayne "Buzzy" Connors

Autobiography for John Wayne “Buzzy” Connors; Hydrographic Service 1955 thru 1968:

1955:  Ottawa as a Junior Draftsman

  1956:  Ottawa as a Junior Draftsman

  1957:  Ottawa; through the good graces of Mr. Titus was given a chance to experience the Field Survey. Joined the CGL Henry Hudson with OIC Gerry Wade at Larry’s River, NS; survey from White Head to the West.

  1958:  CGL Henry Hudson; OIC Gerry Wade; Isaac’s Hbr/Goldboro; continued the survey westward.

  1959:  CGL Henry Hudson OIC Gerry Wade; Sherbrooke; continued the survey westward.

  1960:  CGL Henry Hudson OIC Larry Murdock;

  Late in 1960, I assisted Hydrographer Bob Golding on a winter survey at James Bay. We lived in Moosonee/Moose Factory & spent November/December there. I remember trying to unfreeze the tent in which we located the tide gauge; unsuccessfully!

  1961:  Eastern Arctic OIC Harvey Blandford; CGS C D Howe; Track sounding & other small jobs. We did a survey at Lunenburg, NS in December somewhere around this time with OIC Phil Corkum; George Yeaton was with us also.

  1962:  Polar Continental Shelf Project OIC Mike Eaton; I was located at Isaachen, NWT with a helicopter (Sikorsky) did grid sounding with a prototype sounder on the Arctic Ocean & the surrounding area. Mike was at Penny Strait doing experimental work on the transponder pulled behind the helicopter. We lost one of our pilots that year; a crash in snowout.

  1963:  St. Lawrence River; the CGS Maxwell; OIC Phil Corkum; Baie Comeau; Dingwall Hbr, Cape Breton

  1964:  NewFoundLand OIC JEV Goodwill; CSS Acadia (Capn. Taylor) St John’s Hbr shoal at entrance; work around St. Pierre et Miquelon but most memorable was our positioning of the Funk Island by sun shot (John O’Shea); a protected site & we were fortunate to be there & Vic kept us all inline.

  1965:  St. Lawrence Seaway; CHL Shag; OIC Chuck Leadman; Neuville, Que.

  1966:  Tobermory; OIC Earl Brown; Survey around Georgian Bay.
Montreal; OIC Chuck Leadman; small boat survey in preparation for Centennial.
           Caribbean on Training Cruise; CGS Baffin; OIC Sid VanDyck; training exercises around  Antigua .

  1967:  Port Severn; OIC Earl Brown; small boat survey.
Caribbean on Training Cruise; CGS Baffin; OIC S. VanDyck; around Antigua but I remember doing a              rather extensive survey at Ocho Rios; worked all winter on this chart.

1968:  Training in office.

           Resigned to take position as Math Instructor at NSEIT, Sydney, NS.

  From Hydrographic Records:    

   1964 - Summer student - CSS Acadia - PEI, NS, Nfld - after survey season joined CHS 
1965 - Survey Assistant - CGL SHAG - St Lawrence River survey - Neuville to Quebec bridge
1966 - Hydrographer - Entrance to Georgian Bay - (3 May to 16 July)
1966 - Hydrographer - St Lawrence River Survey (July 19 to Nov 9)
• 1966/67- Field Supervisor-Training-Hydro I (Class Photo)
1967 - HIC sub-party - Georgian Bay - Port Severn to Parry Sound - small craft charting.

L.G. Conor

• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Compilation Services & Training (Map Compiler and Computer 3)

K. Conroy

• 1939 - listed as clerical assistant at Headquarters.
• 1940 - in chart distribution

F.A. Cook

• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Chart Revision Compilation (Map Compiler and Computer 1)

Captain James Cook, R.N.

"I had the ambition not only to go farther than any one had been before, but as far as it was possible for man to go."
Born: Oct. 27, 1728, Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, England
Died: Feb. 14, 1779, Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii
British naval captain, navigator, explorer, surveyor, chartmaker.
Early Life
James Cook was the second son of James Cook, Snr., a farm hand migrant from Scotland. His father's employer, aware of his inquiring mind, financed his early education. Showing a flair for mathematics, he was briefly apprenticed to William Sanderson, a grocer and haberdasher, in Staithes, 10 miles north of Whitby, but by 18 was going to sea. By 21, he was an 'able seaman' on colliers -- stout, seaworthy, slow 300 tonners -- owned by John Walker of Whitby, mainly working in the North Sea. During winter nights in Whitby and living in Walker's house [Web-site cross-reference to museum didn't connect], he studied mathematics. At the age of 24 he was mate and offered command of a bark at 27 (8 years at sea). Unpredictably he turned it down and volunteered for the Royal Navy as an 'able seaman' on 17th June 1755.\
Early Naval Life
Assigned to HMS Eagle, Cook's ability to lead caught his superiors' attention and he soon rose to master's mate within a month of joining, then boatswain, before passing Trinity House's examination for Master on 29th June 1757. 'Master' holds no modern equivalent; he was the chief professional sailor responsible for navigation and seamanship. Captain Hugh Palliser, his commander for the past 21 months, was later to have enormous influence on his career. He become master of the 64-gun frigate HMS Pembroke on 10th October 1757, at the age of 29. During the 1756-1763 war with France, he saw action in the Bay of Biscay, took command of a captured ship, and was involved in the capture of Louisburg, N.S. He received his introduction to chart making from John Simcoe, his captain and detailed training in the techniques of surveying and chart drafting from Samuel Holland, an army engineer under Gen. Wolfe. After the fall of Louisburg, Wolfe sent the Pembroke and other ships on harrying raids of French settlements in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Under the watchful eye of Simcoe, these two surveyed and charted the Bay of Gaspé and Gaspé Harbour. Cook later had the survey plan engraved and the chart sold. During the winter in Halifax, Cook and Holland assembled a chart of the St. Lawrence River from captured French charts.

On 5th May 1759, the 13 ships of the advance British forces left Halifax and penetrated the St. Lawrence River to within 30 miles of Quebec where the main navigable channel changes from the north to south bank through a complicated stretch of water known as the Traverse. The buoys had all been removed by the French defenders and, on June 8, 1759, the masters of all the British ships present, Cook prominent among them, began to rechart and rebuoy the channel, working at night and within range of the defenders' guns. Not only did they find and survey the Traverse but a second navigable channel and found natural leading marks to assist in the navigation. By June 25, a British fleet of over 200 ships surprised the defence by making the passage of the Traverse without a single casualty. Cook later drew a 10-foot long manuscript (of which 3 remain) in late 1762. Cook remained in Canada when the Pembroke returned to home in September 1759 becoming master of 70-gun HMS Northumberland. He spent the winters in Halifax and surveying the lower St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia in 1760-62. For example, he surveyed Placentia Roads and Harbour, Bay Bulls, St. John's Harbour, the coast between St. John's and Cape St. Francis, Carbonear and Harbour Grace in 1760.

Newfoundland Surveys
His work was so well received that Captain (later , Lord) Graves, the Governor of Newfoundland took Cook with him to Newfoundland in 1763. That year, using HMS Tweed, he surveyed the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon before they were handed back to France (the French Governor was detained until the survey was completed) under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. Graves bought the 68 ton schooner Sally and renamed it Grenville for Cook's use, now the King's Surveyor. From 1764 to 1768, he commanded Grenville (crew of 9). He started surveying Strait of Belle Isle where he measured a base at Noddy Bay, on the north coast, and extended his survey control westwards through the Strait of Belle Isle to Point Ferolle. Cook ran soundings over the Grand Banks on passage back to England on HMS Tweed. At the end of the 1764 season he sailed his tiny vessel to England where it was converted to a brig.

For the next three years, Cook sailed Grenville across the Atlantic for five months surveying off Newfoundland's west and south coast and prepared the charts and sailing directions during the winters in London where he had the charts engraved and sold. He had previously met, worked with, and learned the art of chart making from Joseph DesBarres as they surveyed in Conception Bay. DesBarres would later produce a great folio of charts, called The Atlantic Neptune, from 1774 to 1781.

On 5th August 1766, he had the initiative to use an eclipse of the Sun to establish an accurate longitude of Eclipse Island near Burgeo. We now know that modern maps place the island at 47° 36' 22"N, 57° 36' 53"W whereas Cook's astronomic position was 47° 36' 19"N, 57° 37'W, a mere 500 feet (150 m) from its modern determination. In a era when longitude errors were in the order of tens of miles, this was phenomenal. Officially, he was a 'master' which is a non-commissioned rank (someone of a lower class of society) yet his paper on the event presented to the Royal Society in London brought his name to the eyes of influential people within the Society and at the Admiralty. Cook's charts of Newfoundland waters were published in London from 1765 to 1768 and remained in print for decades. The surveys Cook carried out in Newfoundland were undoubtedly his finest "pure" surveys. He had the time and the equipment to give them his best effort. The best proof of their excellence is that they were not superseded by more detailed surveys for over a century.

Whenever possible Cook used designations for place names that were already in existence; otherwise he bestowed names in the traditional manner: for similar features in England, royalty, politicians, naval superiors and ships. Cook's sense of humour is also evident in his place naming; e.g., Nameless Point and Unfortunate Cove - where he severely wounded his hand when a large powder horn exploded. Names already in existence that Cook formalized: Belleoram (from the French Bande l'Arier), Bonne Bay (from a 1689 map by Detchevery showing Baya Ederra), Gaultois (Cook's spelling of the Norman French 'galtis') and Sacred Bay (from Baie de Sacre). Cook, himself, is honoured by Cooks Cove (Humber Arm), Cooks Cove (Avalon), Cooks Harbour (Pistolet Bay) and Cooks Brook (Bay of Islands).

First Expedition
In 1768, the Royal Society, supported by the Admiralty, organized an expedition to the Pacific to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun (which occurs twice in 114 years). He was accompanied by the 26 year old, rich, Joseph Banks (scientific leader) and Daniel Solander (Swedish botanist). Both are remembered by islands on the British Columbia coast. It was hoped that the data collected could be used to determine the size of the Earth's orbit. The 40 year old James Cook was appointed leader, but he had to be hurriedly appointed as a Lieutenant. Whether his choice or Admiralty's, his ship was a sturdy converted Whitby collier, renamed HMS Endeavour. After observing the Transit of Venus in June 1769, he searched for the continent that was supposed to exist in counterbalance to the land in the Northern Hemisphere. He charted the complete coastline of New Zealand and the east coast of Australia. His crew suffered losses from dysentery contracted at Batavia (Jakarta) but Cook had championed scurvy through cleanliness, ventilation and diet.

Second Expedition
On his return he was promoted Commander and presented to King George III. He began to organize an even more ambitious voyage, because the first one had excited interest in many other scientific subjects. Between July 1772 and July 1775, Cook made one of the greatest sailing voyages of all time. With a former Whitby ship, HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure, another collier, he found no trace of a supposed large southern continent although he sailed beyond 70°S, completed the first west to east circumnavigation in extreme southern latitudes, charted Tonga and Easter Islands, discovered New Caledonia in the Pacific and the South Sandwich Islands and South Georgia Island in the Atlantic. Again, not one of his crew died of scurvy. Back in England, he was promoted to Captain, elected a fellow of the Royal Society and awarded one of its highest medals for his work against scurvy.

Third Expedition
On July 11, 1776 he departed on board HMS Resolution accompanied by another ex-Whitby ship, HMS Discovery, to the North Pacific Ocean to find the entrance to the Northwest (north of Alaska and Canada) or Northeast Passage (north of Siberia and Russia). Although he penetrated Bering Strait, further exploration was blocked by ice. Getting there, he charted the British Columbia and southern Alaska coasts, thus defining for the first time the western limit of the North American continent. Unfortunately, this expedition led to his death in a fracas with the natives on the Hawaiian islands, which he discovered on this expedition. Is it surprising to note that William Bligh was sailing master on the Resolution? George Vancouver was on the Resolution on the second expedition and a midshipman on the Discovery on the third. Vancouver would return to the British Columbia coast on a different HMS Discovery 15 years later.

Prior to Cook, the chart of the Pacific Ocean, the world's largest spanning almost half the equatorial circumference and extending 130° in the north-south direction, was almost blank and what was shown was often incorrectly placed. Cook, as well as great acts of exploring, had the first opportunity to use a marine chronometer to determine his longitude so what he did discover could be charted in its correct location, and his expertise in surveying and chartmaking meant that he provided future mariners a legacy of good charts. It is only in the past few years that the last of Cook's surveys (in New Zealand) has been replaced by a modern survey.

Beaglehole, J.C. 1974. The Life of Captain James Cook. Adam & Charles Black. London. ISBN 7136-1382-3.
David, Andrew. 1988. The Charts & Coastal Views of Captain Cook's Voyages, Vol. 1 The Voyage of the Endeavour 1768-71. The Hakluyt Society, London. ISBN 0-904-180-239.
Encyclopedia Britannica. 1997. (CD form)
Farrell, Barbara, & Aileen Desbarats (Editors).1988. Explorations in the History of Canadian Mapping: A collection of Essays. Association of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives, Ottawa. ISBN 0-9690682-5-5.
Fillmore, Stanley & R.W. Sandilands. 1983. The Chartmakers. NC Press Ltd. Toronto. ISBN 0-919601-92-8
Hamilton, William B. 1966. Place Names of Atlantic Canada. University of Toronto Press. Toronto. ISBN 0-8020-7570-3.
Haslam, R.Adm. D.W. 1983. The British Contribution to Hydrography in Canada. Proceedings Centennial Conference Canadian Hydrographic Service. Dept. Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences Special Publication #67.
Ritchie, Adm. G.S. 1995. The Admiralty Chart. The Pentland Press. Durham. ISBN 1-85821-234-0
• credited for surveys on chart BA 232b

John S. Cookson


John Cookson was born in 1934 and grew up in Southhampton, U.K. After fulfilling his British military service in Egypt, he joined the British Ordnance Survey as a civilian. In 1957, John emigrated to Canada and settled in Ottawa. John worked for Spartan Air Services before joining the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) as a draftsman.

As a member of the CHS cartographic staff, John worked his way up through the ranks and became a supervising draftsman. In 1976, he joined the Training and Standards section where he was responsible for developing and teaching the drafting and reproduction portion of the CHS cartographic training courses. John also developed the drafting standards for CHS symbology. As a Cartographic Training Officer since 1976, John was well known by most CHS cartographic staff, having taught most of them on either Carto I or II.

Students from other countries, including Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Seychelles, Mauritius, Korea, South Africa and Nigeria also benefited from John's knowledge and expertise. John was also generous with his time and help for students on related navigation and seamanship courses.

In winter, John was an avid cross country skier and from spring to fall he spent much of his spare time on his cruiser berthed at Merrickville. He was an active member of the Britannia Power and Sail Squadron and also instructed there.

Source: Lighthouse, Fall 1992, p. 51.

• 1960 - classification in 1960:  Draftsman 2
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 2, Group D (Draftsman Grade3)
1967 - supervisor - drafting section - Ottawa

Photos: Carto I 1977

D.J. (Derek) Cooper

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tides and Water Level Section, Technician 2
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Tides and Water Levels, Data Collection, Field Officer (Technical Officer 3)
• 1966 - transferred to Central Region

Cdr. E. J. Cooper, C.M.

John Cooper, retired from the CHS in 1978 as Territorial Waters Officer. He had served during the war on HMS Churchill, and joined the CHS as a sailing directions writer. He became involved with the establishment of the straight baselines for the Territorial Sea and worked on the boundary negotiations with France in 1970s and United States in 1980s. He was part of the Canadian Delegation to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, attending sessions in New York, Geneva and Caracas. He was part of the Canadian team in a hearing at a Chamber of the International Court of Justice in The Hague for the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine (1980s) and at the ad hoc arbitration that decided the maritime boundary south and west of St. Pierre and Miquelon (1990s). In 1992, he was awarded a Member of the Order of Canada for his service to Canada. John was born May 16, 1921 and died February 18, 1999.

Sources: Lighthouse, Apr. 1979, p. 20.
David Gray

John Cooper will best be remembered by Canada as the technical specialist that helped formulate Canada’s 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone thereby increasing Canada’s jurisdiction by millions of square kilometres.  John died in Ottawa after a short period in hospital on February 18th, 1999.

Edward John Cooper, known to his friends as ‘John’, was born in England on 16 May 1921.  He joined the merchant marine as an officer cadet and at the outbreak of war transferred to the Royal Navy Reserve.  He started as a Midshipman on Armoured Cruisers but by 1941 he was serving in H.M.S. Churchill, one of the 50 US Navy four-stacker destroyers transferred to the Royal Navy, and spent most of the war on convoy duty working with the Canadian group.  John continued with the Royal Navy after World War 2 and saw service in the Korean conflict until he transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1953.

He joined the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 1956 and continued his naval affiliations by being a reservist at H.M.C.S. Carleton, retiring as Commanding Officer.  As a Sailing Directions officer in CHS he saw some field duties by visiting areas to collect information for Pilots and Sailing Directions.  However, it was his navigating officer’s experience that caused him to become the Territorial Waters Officer responsible for defining the 3-mile territorial sea limit, and then 12-mile fishing zone limits on charts.  As such, he attended the preparatory committee meetings for the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea and all of the many sittings of the Conference itself as it moved amongst New York City, Geneva and Caracas.  Officially, he retired from the CHS in 1978 but received several contracts from External Affairs to continue with the Canadian delegation.

As the hydrographic expert on the Canadian negotiating teams, his role was essential in the bilateral boundary discussions with United States, France and Denmark.  The Gulf of Maine dispute ended at the International Court of Justice in The Hague, and the St. Pierre and Miquelon question was resolved at an ad hoc hearing in New York City.  The Danish question was concluded at the negotiating table in Ottawa and Copenhagen.  The Canada-Greenland (Denmark) line is a masterpiece of agreeing to put aside technical problems that could not be resolved at that time – no doubt an idea of the two technical experts – Milan Thamsborg and John.

External Affairs sent John to help Trinidad, Dominica, Vanuatu, and Cook Islands with their maritime limits.  For his devotion to the establishment and contribution to the recognition of Canada’s maritime boundaries, he was awarded the Member of the Order of Canada in 1992.

He met his wife, Margaret, during the war where she was working at Bletchley on the ENIGMA (German cipher).  They were married in 1943.

His love of things “naval” never really left him.  He made model ships, including ones that he had sailed on and which he sailed by remote-controlled radio, and read constantly.  After his eyesight failed, he continued with “talking books” from the library.  His wife Margaret’s volunteer service with CNIB provided a wealth of understanding for his affliction.

We extend our deepest condolences to his wife Margaret and their three sons.

 Source: Geomatica, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1999, pp. 472-3.

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 6
• 1962 - in Sailing Directions
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Sailing Directions (Technical Officer 6)

P. Copeland

• 1966 - Student Assistant - Trent Severn Waterway Survey, Ont (10 May to 7 Sept)

P.L. (Phil) Corkum

• 1944 - hired as 'seaman technical'
• 1944 - Mahone Bay survey
• 1950 - surveyed Bell Island, Conception Bay, Nfld. (chart 4566)
• 1950 - Battle Harbour & C. St. Charles, Lab. survey (chart 4713, 4714)
• 1951 - St. Lewis Sound (Lab.) survey (FS 2274)
• 1951-52 - surveyed Coception Bay, Nfld. (chart 4572)
1953 - HIC, CHL RAE, Great Slave Lake
1954 - HIC, CHL RAE, Great Slave Lake, Yellowknife Bay and Approaches
1955 - HIC, CHL RAE, Approaches to Yellowknife Bay
1956 - HIC, CHL RAE, Tuktoyaktuk Harb and Mackenzie River from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic
• 1962-63 - survey of Baie Coneau (chart 1245)
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Bedford Institute, Field Officer (Technical Officer 6)
• 1963 - surveyed Dingwall Harbour, N.S. (chart 4365)
1964 - HIC, CSS Kapuskasing - Chaleur Bay
• 1964&66 - surveyed Belledune Wharf, N.B. (chart 4414)
1966 (Staff assignment) - Education
• 1967 - Hydrographer in Charge, ACADIA, Nfld
1974   (Annual Report) Head of Standards and Inspection Unit

Cormier (French Navy)

• surveyed Newfoundland in 19th Century

Mr. W.F. Cornish, R.N.

• 1892 - assistant on survey of East Cape, Anticosti Island (chart 4430a)
• 1893-96 surveyed codroy Road to Cow Head, Nfld. Under Tooker (chart BA283, BA2876) 

Louis Coste

• former Chief Engineer of the Department of Public Works
• from 7 January 1905 - International Waterways Commission

Gerald J. Costello

• 1983 –Strait of Belle Isle survey (FS 4962)

Thomas Cote

• of Montreal
• from 20 February, 1905- Secretary, International Waterways Commission.

Capt. Joseph Couillard

• 1912 - Sailing Master, ARCTIC, magnetic surveys Hudson Bay

Mrs. E.M. Coulter

• 1973 - headed Chart Correction Unit, Pacific Region

Courmes (French Navy)

• surveyed Newfoundland in 19th Century

J. Cournoyer

• 1964 - Electronic Technician - CSS Baffin - 6 Oct - 25 Oct - Bay of Fundy survey
1966 - Technician - CSS Baffin - Tail of the Bank (16 May to 26 Aug)

D.F. Courtnage

   1966 - Summer student - Marabell  - Various BC locations - from 2 June to 31 August
• 1967/68-Training-Hydro I
Photos: Hydro I 1967/68
   1968 - Hydrographer - Marabell - Various BC locations (16 April to 24 Aug) resigned

 R.D. Courtnage

   1965 - Hydrographic Assistant - CSS Wm J. Stewart - 8 June to 20 Oct
• 1965/66-Training-Hydro I (CHS Class Photo)
1970 - Acting Hydrographer-in-Charge - Rideau Waterway and Thousand Islands survey (1 Apr - 21 Oct)

Bob Covey

BIRTH DATE: 16-Feb-53


EDUCATION: 1976 completed 3 year Civil Technologist course - Algonquin College
1977 - Hydrography I
1981 - Hydrography II
1989 - Canada Lands Surveyour Commission
JOINED: 18-May-76
May 18, 1976 - Term
Dec. 6, 1976 - EG-03
Nov. 1, 1977 - EG-04
May 18, 1979 - EG-05
May 18, 1981 - EG-06

WORK YEAR     WORK ASSIGNMENT                                                                 HIC, MANAGER/SUPERVISOR 

1974                 Student Assistant - 4 months Local Surveys                               Paul Davies
1975                 Student Assistant - 4 months Thunder Bay & Lake Winnipeg        Ken Hipkin
1976                 Lake Erie Limnogeology                                                         Vern Crowley
1977                 Hudson Bay - offshore CCGS NARWHAL                                     Reg Lewis
1978                 Lake Huron Survey                                                                 Jack Wilson
1979                 Oakville Harbour Survey                                                          Earl Brown
1980                 Revisory Survey                                                                     Mike Crutchlow
1981                 Lake Huron Survey                                                                  Arnie Welmers
1982                 U.S. Exchange May - Aug.                                                       Earl Brown
Tidal Section Feb. - May                                                         Dennis St. Jacques
1983                 Rotation - Tidal Section                                                         Dennis St. Jacques
1984                 Sault Ste Marie Survey                                                           Arnie Welmers
Hudson Bay Survey  Dinorwic, Wagagoon                                 Ed Thompson
1985                 Lake Ontario Harbours                                                          Mike Crutchlow
Jamaica Hydrographic Training  Project - CIDA                        Bruce Wright
1986                 Lake Erie Harbours                                                               Mike Crutchlow
1987                 Local Surveys                                                                      Ed Thompson
1988                 St. Lawrence River Survey                                                   Ken Hipkin
1989                 Sr. Assistant St. Lawrence River Survey                                 Ken Hipkin
1990                 Sr. Assistant - St. Lawrence River                                         Jack Wilson
1991                 TCWL   Italian Training Project                                             Rick Sandilands
1992                 Churchill Harbour Survey                                                     Ed Thompson
1993                 Sr. Assistant Victoria Strait Survey - CCGS FRANKLIN              Bruce Wright
1994                 Sr. Assistant Lac du Bonnet Survey                                       Paul Davies
1995                 HIC Revisory Survey                                                           Rick Sandilands
1996                 Rankin Inlet Survey - CCGS HUDSON                                     Paul Davies
1997                 Sr. Assistant Hudson Bay Survey - CCGS HUDSON                   Paul Davies
Thunder Bay Harbour - Multibeam
1998                 Sr. Assistant Georgian Bay Survey - CCGS GRIFFON               John Medendorp
1999                 HIC Revisory Survey                                                           Rick Sandilands
2000                 HIC Revisory Survey                                                           Dennis St. Jacques
2001                 HIC Revisory Survey                                                           Rick Sandilands
2003                 HIC Revisory Survey                                                           Rick Sandilands
2004                 Revisory Survey                                                                John Medendorp
2005                 Revisory Survey                                                                John Medendorp

William Covey

1919 - 2015  

Bill Covey was born in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan and at an early age moved to Toronto with his parents. In 1939 he graduated as an architectural draftsman from Central Technical School and that year won the competition for Student Draftsman with the Geological Survey of Canada in Ottawa. During World War 2, he served overseas as a Navigator with the RCAF. In 1948, he transferred to the Cartographic staff of CHS where he supervised in the Compilation and Drafting Sections.

As a Supervising Draftsman he lobbied hard and long to be allowed to take part in a CHS survey party to broaden his knowledge of the marine chart process; he was assigned to CGS KAPUSKASING (Dusty DeGrasse, HIC) for their 1963 survey season where he worked as a member of the party; thus began the continuing field-home office exchange program in CHS.

In 1965 he became Technical Information Officer for CHS where he:

Originated the liaison with the Canadian Power Squadrons, organizing the production of their first Canadian Training Chart.

Originated the MAREP (Marine Reporting Program) in conjunction with Canadian Power Squadrons.

Originated the Chart Dealer Inspection Program.

Organized exhibits and participated in Boat Shows from coast to coast in Canada and the USA.

Produced exhibits and information aboard CHS BAFFIN on her visit to Monaco in 1967 as part of the International Hydrographic Conference. He kept watch as a hydrographer enroute and on the return voyage.

Bill retired in 1974 at age 55 with 35 years service, the first in CHS to do so. His son Bob, now retired, was hired at CHS as a Hydrographer at CCIW that year; they worked for CHS for a total of 68 years.

Bill and Bette (also ex-CHS) moved to Middleton, Nova Scotia in 1983 where they both still sing in local choral groups and enjoy the good life in Meadowlarks, their home with a large screened deck on a hill overlooking a beautiful 9-acre meadow. Tea (or something stronger) and Bette’s biscuits are served every afternoon at 3:00 for visitors from anywhere.

Sources: Lighthouse, Spring 1990, p. 22.
"A Cartographic Tale a Half-Century Old", Lighthouse, Spring 1990, pp. 19-22.
"Number 8", Lighthouse, Fall 1990, pp. 11-16.
"A Landlubber at Sea", Lighthouse, Fall 1991, pp. 7-12.

  1960 - classification in 1960: Tech Off 5 • April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Chart Drafting and Reproduction, head Unit 1 (Technical Officer 5)

E.J. Cowell

• 1946 - appointed as Student Draftsman, Headquarters
• 1947 - listed as Student Draftsman in chart drafting section
• 1960 - classification in 1960:  Draftsman 3
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 1, Group B (Draftsman Grade 3)

F.W. Cowie

• prior to 1904 – Engineer in charge of St. Lawrence Ship Channel (Public Works)
• 1904 – superintending Engineer St. Lawrence Ship Channel (Marine and Fisheries)
• 1905 - Superintendent of Sorel Shipyards.

F.P.V. Cowley

• 1908 - appointed to hydrographic staff, Victoria, surveys near Skeena River.
• 1909 - shore party at Telegraph Narrows survey.
• 1910 - Dixon Entrance survey, in charge of shore party survey of Arthur Passage.
• 1910 - resigned at end of season

Joseph Cosford (Coxford?)

• 1912-13 - Chief Engineer, LA CANADIENNE, Lake Superior survey
• 1913 - retired at end of field season.

Cdr. H.L. Cox, R.N.

• 1860 - Boulton served under him, HMS CURACOA
•Augusta Rock, Parry Sound District, named after a daughter of Capt. Cox. (White, p. 12)

C. Cranston (or T.C. Cranton)

• 1944 - hired as 'seaman technical'
• 1944 - Northumberland Strait survey.
• 1945 - Strait of Canso survey

D. Craig

   1968 - Student Assistant - Ottawa River survey
1969 - Student Assistant - Rideau Waterway survey, Ont. (5 May - 6 Sept)

J. Craig

• 1968 - Student Assistant - Georgian Bay survey, Ont (21 May to 30 Aug)


• 1961 - Headquarters Staff, Stenographer (typist 2).

K.E. Crawford

• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Compilation Services and Training ( Map Compiler and Computer 1)

Dr. William Crawford

Bill Crawford is a research scientist, and Head of the Hydrodynamics Applications Section in the Canadian Hydrographic Service, Pacific Region.  During his 20 years in CHS at the Institute of Ocean Sciences he has been involved with tides and currents research, coastal oceanographic studies and oil spill predictions.  He served as oceanographic editor of ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN, the research journal of the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, from 1989 to 1992, and has published about 50 scientific papers.

 Source: Lighthouse, No. 55, Spring 1997, p. 19.

E.F. Creelman

• 1930 - North shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence survey
• 1930 - resigned at end of field season.

Hon. T.A. Crerar

• Sept. 14, 1936  - appointed Minister of Mines and Resources.

Gordon Lithgow Crichton


Born in Halifax, N.S. September 1881, Gordon Lithgow Crichton was educated in the public and high schools of this Atlantic Seaport before attending Dalhousie University in the course of Engineering. He was appointed to the Hydrographic Survey in June 1909 as a draftsman, and in September of that year was loaned to the International Waterways Commission as Canada's Chief Draftsman, with headquarters at Buffalo, N.Y. When the cartographic work on these boundary maps ended, Mr. Crichton returned to Ottawa March 1915 and was appointed Principal Map Draftsman of the Hydrographic Survey. While in Buffalo, he acquired considerable knowledge and experience with copper-plate engraving, and in 1921 was influential in having an Engraving Unit from the Printing Bureau attached to his Drafting Section. He was named Chief Draftsman in 1921; and in 1927, Chief, Charting Division. In 1940, the title of his position was changed to Chief, Chart Construction; and this office he held until his retirement from active duty with the Hydrographic Service in September 1946. For some years following his retirement Mr. Crichton was employed with the Nova Scotia Provincial Government. He died in Bradenton, Florida, December 23rd, 1965, aged 84 years.

Source: Soundings, August, 1966.

• June 1909 - appointed draftsman with the Hydrographic Survey
• September 1909 - sent to Buffalo as Principal Draftsman (Canadian Section) for the International Boundary surveys and charts.
• March 1915 - returned to CHS at Ottawa, placed in charge of Drafting Office (Principal Map Draftsman
• 1916-26 - in charge of Drafting Office
• 1923 - helped with water level investigations, Hamilton Inlet.
• 1926-39 - in charge of Chart Construction division.
• Sept. 1946 - retired.

C.R. Crocker

• 1938 - SE Georgian Bay survey.
• 1939 - Lake Nipigon survey.
• 1940 - Mahone Bay survey
• July 1940 - left CHS to join the army, did not return to CHS at end of war.

G.B. Croll

• 1960 - classification in 1960: Superv Draftsman 2
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction. Unit 2, Special Projects (Technical Officer Grade 3)

Clarence Melvin Cross

26 January, 1918 – 30 November, 2003

The following obituary appeared in the Dec. 06, 2003 edition of the Ottawa Citizen.

Born January 26th, 1918 in Chesterville, Ontario. Passed away peacefully on November 30th, 2003 after a brief illness at the Winchester District Memorial Hospital. Clarence obtained his BA. in math from Queen’s University, then completed his M.A. in physics at the University of Toronto. He was a senior federal public servant in the areas of hydrography and oceanography, retiring in 1976. His chief interests in retirement were genealogy and local history. Survived by Alice Cross of Victoria and children Ian Cross (Lee McMichael-Cross), Philip Cross, Julie Mackenzie (Ian) and Diane Cross. Fondly remembered by grandchildren Patrick, Alexander and Laura. The family wishes to express their sincere appreciation to Dr. Adamson and the nurses of the Winchester District Memorial Hospital. A memorial visitation was held on Thursday, December 4th at 1 p.m. at the Trinity United Church on Water Street, Chestervllle, Ontario followed by a memorial service at 2 pm. in the church. Inurnment at a later date. Flowers are gratefully declined. If desired, donations can be made to the Winchester District Memorial Hospital or the Chesterville Historical Society or charity of choice. For more information, please call the Chesterville Funeral Home at 613-448-2120.

Born January 26th, 1918 in Chesterville, Ontario. Passed away peacefully on November 30th, 2003 after a brief illness at the Winchester District Memorial Hospital.  Clarence obtained his BA in Math from Queen’s University, then completed his MA in Physics at the University of Toronto.  He was a senior federal public servant in the areas of hydrography and oceanography, retiring in 1976.  His chief interests in retirement were genealogy and local history,  Survived by Alice Cross of Victoria, and children Ian Cross (Lee McMichael-Cross), Philip Cross, Julie Mackenzie (Ian) and Diane Cross.  Fondly remembered by 3 grandchildren.

Source: Lighthouse, Ed. 65, Summer 2004

• 1958 - Superintendent - Tides and Inland Water Levels
• 1961 - Tides and Water Levels, Technical Officer (Technical Officer 11)
1962 - Superintendent of Tides, Currents and Water Levels
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Technical Assistant, Special Assignments to the Dominion Hydrographer. and Superintendent, Tides Currents and Water Levels , (Technical Officer 11)

R.W. Crouch

• 1961 - Pacific Region, Storeman (Storeman 3)

J.V. Crowley

   1966 Hydrographic Assistant - CSS Baffin - Tail of the Bank (31 Aug to 19 Sept)
1966 Hydrographic Assistant - CSS Kapuskasing - Gulf of St Lawrence (24 Sept to 13 Oct)
• 1966/67-Training-Hydro I (Class Photo)
1967 - Hydrographer - Lake Surveillance Program
1968 - Hydrographer - Lake of the Woods survey, Ont.
1970 - Senior Hydrographer - Lower St Lawrence survey - 13 Apr to 3 Nov

W.S. Crowther


Sev Crowther was most recently the Manager of Nautical Publications and Distribution in the Canadian Hydrographic Service, Pacific Region. He retired on March 31, 1994, after almost 42 years of service to CHS. He passed away on June 16, 1994 after a lengthy battle with cancer.

W.S. Crowther was born and raised in British Columbia. After graduating from high school, Sev started a long and distinguished career with the Federal Government as a student draughtsman on August 11, 1952 in the Civil Service Map Drafting School in Ottawa and after completing the training course, joined CHS as a draftsman/inker. For the first few years, he worked on field surveys in that capacity during the field season and when not in the field, worked in the drafting section with Els Walsh and Bill Covey. Once he came ashore, Sev rose through positions of increasing responsibility to the position of Head of the Cartographic Section and was instrumental in implementing the first drafting course in 1969. He was a great proponent of combining the duties of chart compilers and draughtsmen. Sev was also very active in the Public Service Alliance of Canada during the time the union was becoming the bargaining agent for many Federal employees. He was president of the Environment Component of PSAC when he met Diane Proulx who would become his wife.

In September 1974, Sev became head, Geoscience Mapping, and was responsible for GEBCO charts and Natural Resource Maps. In May 1977, he moved to pacific Region as Chief of Chart Production and in November 1978, he became Regional Chart Superintendent (changed to Manager, Nautical Publications and Distribution in 1991). Among his many achievements was the introduction of the first CHS Cruising Atlas designed for recreational boaters, which was introduced in 1986.

Outside of work, Sev's interests included gardening, travel, sports, and in particular children. When employed in Ottawa, Sev played Santa Claus at staff functions and delivered gifts to children of CHS employees at home on Christmas Eve. He continues that tradition when he moved to Pacific Region and over the last 15 years, hundreds of children have sat on his knee at the Annual IOS Children's Christmas Party and in various homes around town.

Source: The Canadian Surveyor, Winter 1987, p. 586.
Lighthouse, Spring 1994, pp. 35 & 40.

• 1960 - classification in 1960:  Draftsman 3
• 1962 - on temporary loan to Compilation
• April 1963 (CHS org chart)- Drafting and Reproduction, Unit 2, Group C (Draftsman Grade 3)

Michael Crutchlow

Mike Crutchlow was born in Coventry, England in February 1945 and emigrated to Canada in 1953.  In 1969, Mike graduated from Algonquin College in Ottawa with a Civil Technology diploma.  Shortly after that, he joined CHS as a full-time employee and went on to complete the Basic and Advanced hydrography courses offered by CHS.  He has held several land survey commissions in Canada. 

Source: 1998 Canadian Hydrographic Conference Proceedings, p. 2. 

    1967 - Summer Student - CSS Baffin - Grand Bank of Nfld (22 May - 1 Sept) from EOIT
1968 - Student Assistant - Lake of the Woods survey, Ont. (15 May - 29 Aug)
1970 - Hydrographic Assistant (TIRL) - Rideau Waterway, Thousand Islands (Ont) (1 Apr - 13 Oct)
1970/71 Training Hydrography I

Miss M.L. Cumbers

• fall 1929 - appointed to Tidal Survey section.
• 1939 - listed as stenographer for Mr. Jones (Tidal section).
• 1947 - listed as stenographer to Tidal and Current Survey section
• prior to 1967 - married, Mrs. Soutar (see also M.L. Soutar)

Robert H. Cunningham

• 1921 - transferred from Printing Bureau to CHS as an apprentice copper plate engraver.
• 1921-28 - junior copper plate engraver.

Major Walter Alfred Cunningham


born 2 July 1898 in Scotland (1901 census)

The death occurred suddenly at his home in Ottawa December 9th 1965 of Major Walter Alfred Cunningham, a former Senior Copper-Plate Engraver with the Hydrographic Service prior to World War 2. Mr. Cunningham was an apprentice in the Engraving Section of the Printing Bureau in November 1913, and when an Engraving unit was attached to the Drafting Section of the Hydrographic Survey in 1921, Mr. Cunningham was transferred with other engravers to this Survey from the Bureau. About the year 1937, copper-plate engraving was being superseded in the cartographic industry by photo engraving on glass; and about 1953 plastic engraving was adopted and is still in use. Upon Major Cunningham's return from war duty in 1946, he was re-assigned from the Hydrographic Service to the map Compilation and Reproduction Division of the Department. At the time of his retirement June 28th 1963, he was in charge of the negative Correction and Colour Unit of this Division. At a farewell gathering on the occasion of his retirement, 'Walter' as he was best known, remarked, that he was the first in the Department to retire with fifty years of service without extensions. Also that the Cunningham Family (father, brother, and uncle) had contributed over 150 years of service to the profession of mapping. Walter's military service record was equally commendable and began in the Army Service Corps overseas in 1915. Until his retirement in 1958 from the Canadian militia as Major, he was very active in the Ottawa militia.

Source: Soundings, August, 1966.
Father of Walter T. Cunningham of Ottawa, Ian D. Cunningham of Toronto, and the brother of Robert H. Cunningham of Winnipeg.

• 1921 - transferred from Printing Bureau to CHS as junior copper plate engraver.
• 1921- 39 - senior copper plate engraver.
• 1940 - granted military leave of absence, never returned to CHS.
• 1963 - retired from Retouch and Colour Section, Map Compilation & Reproduction, Dept. Mines & Technical Surveys.

Walter C. Cunningham

  born 22 Oct 1872 in Scotland (1901 census)

• 1911 - first chief of chart engraving at Public Works.
• 1921 - transferred from Printing Bureau to CHS as Chief Engraver.
• 1921-39 - Chief Engraver.
• 1940 - retired on pension.

Terry Curran

Education: B.A.Sc. (EE), UBC, 1970; M.Sc. (Physics - Oceanography), UBC, 1981.

Terry joined the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 1973. He is presently, Chief of Engineering Services in CHS Pacific, and Industrial Liaison Officer for the Institute of Ocean Sciences (IOS), at Sidney, B.C.) In the first capacity, he coordinates internal engineering developments in ocean acoustics, ocean optics, and geomatics technology (computers, communications, and positioning). In the latter capacity, he encourages the dialogue between workers at IOS and those in the private sector.

Source: Lighthouse, Spring 1994, p. 28.

A.H. Curtis

   1967 - Assistant Hydrographer - Georgian Bay survey, Ont - 9 Aug to 13 Oct
• 1967/68-Training-Hydro I
Photos: Hydro I 1967/68
   1968 - Hydrographer - Revisory Surveys - Lake Ontario - resigned service 18 Sept

Miss D. Cuthbertson

• 1942 - appointed Student Draftsman at Headquarters.
• 1947 - listed as Student Draftsman in chart drafting section